Vitamin D has been in the spotlight lately. Even though it is called a vitamin, Vitamin D is actually a hormone, and should be optimized for optimal health. Even people with regular sun exposure can have a deficiency. Optimal Vitamin D levels provide protection against bone loss and osteoporosis, heart disease, cancer and dementia. You need Vitamin D to help calcium in bone protection. We used to believe that 400 IU daily was adequate. Much higher doses are necessary to bring blood levels to within a therapeutic range. We recommend 5,000 IU daily for most people. We recommend that serum levels then be tested to assure adequacy. Sometimes higher doses are needed to treat osteopenia or osteoporosis. Doses over 15,000 IU may be toxic which makes measuring levels advisable. In addition, we do strongly recommend optimal doses of Omega 3 essential fatty acids. With fish oil, this is 1 teaspoon daily or 5 standard gel caps. And don’t forget the multiple vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and B vitamins.