(303) 355-7550

Acknowledgement and References

 

I am indebted to Dr. Neal Rouzier, who has sparked my passion for Hormone Replacement Therapy.  I have benefitted tremendously from educational training through World Link Medical courses and ongoing support from Dr. Rouzier as well as other brilliant physician colleagues.

 

Books and Courses:

How to Achieve Healthy Aging, Second Edition, Neal Rouzier, M.D.

Bio-identical Hormone Replacement Therapy for Men and Women, Neal Rouzier, M.D.

World-Link Medical, Mastering Protocols for Optimization of Hormone Replacement Therapy

 

Research and Journal Articles:

Longevity & Bioidentical Hormones

Friedrich N, Haring R, Nauck M, et al. Mortality and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein 3 concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 May;94(5):1732-9.

Malkin CJ, Pugh PJ, Morris PD, et al. Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men with angina improves ischaemic threshold and quality of life. Heart. 2004 Aug;90(8):871-6.

Besson A, Salemi S, Gallati S, et al. Reduced longevity in untreated patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Aug;88(8):3664- 7.

Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, Criqui MH, Kritz-Silverstein D. The prospective association of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-1 levels with all cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jan;89(1):114-120.

Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Metter EJ, et al. Free testosterone and risk for Alzheimer disease in older men. Neurology. 2004 Jan 27;62(2):188-193.

Khaw KT, Dowsett M, Folkerd E, et al. Endogenous testosterone and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in men: European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) Prospective Population Study. Circulation. 2007 Dec 4;116(23):2694-701.

Malkin CJ, Pugh PJ, Jones RD, et al. The effect of testosterone replacement on endogenous inflammatory cytokines and lipid profiles in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jul;89(7):3313-3318.

Selvin E, Feinleib M, Zhang L, et al. Androgens and diabetes in men: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Diabetes Care. 2007 Feb;30(2):234-238.

Hak AE, Witteman JC, de Jong FH, et al. Low levels of endogenous androgens increase the risk of atherosclerosis in elderly men: the Rotterdam study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Aug;87(8):3632-3639.

Maggio M, Lauretani F, Ceda GP, et al. Relationship between low levels of anabolic hormones and 6-year mortality in older men: the aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) study. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 12;167(20):2249-54.

Shores MM, Matsumoto AM, Sloan KL, Kivlahan DR. Low serum testosterone and mortality in male veterans. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Aug 14-28;166(15):1660-1665.

Asvold BO, Bjøro T, Nilsen TI, et al. Thyrotropin levels and risk of fatal coronary heart disease: the HUNT study. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Apr 28;168(8):855-60.

Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Hollis BW, Rimm EB. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 9;168(11):1174-80.

Schumacher M, Guennoun R, Ghoumari A, et al. Novel perspectives for progesterone in hormone replacement therapy, with special reference to the nervous system. Endocr Rev. 2007 Jun;28(4):387-439.

Nilsen J, Brinton RD. Impact of progestins on estrogen-induced neuroprotection: synergy by progesterone and 19-norprogesterone and antagonism by medroxyprogesterone acetate. Endocrinology. 2002 Jan;143(1):205-212.

Enomoto M, Adachi H, Fukami A, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels predict longevity in men: 27-year follow-up study in a community-based cohort (Tanushimaru study). J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Jun;56(6):994-998.

Fukui M, Kitagawa Y, Nakamura N, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration and carotid atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 2005 Aug;181(2):339-344.

New study finds removing ovaries during hysterectomy increases risk of death, outweighs benefits. Business Wire. 2009 April 20. Accessed from http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20090420005411/en/Study-Finds- Removing-Ovaries-Hysterectomy-Increases-Risk

Parker WH, Broder MS, Chang E, et al. Ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy and long-term health outcomes in the nurses’ health study. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 May;113(5):1027-37.

Shoupe D, Parker WH, Broder MS, et al. Elective oophorectomy for benign gynecological disorders. Menopause. 2007 May-Jun;14(3 Pt 2):580-585.

Mäkinen J, Järvisalo MJ, Pöllänen P, et al. Increased carotid atherosclerosis in andropausal middle-aged men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 May 17;45(10):1603-8.

Rivera CM, Grossardt BR, Rhodes DJ, et al. Increased cardiovascular mortality after early bilateral oophorectomy. Menopause. 2009 Jan-Feb;16(1):15-23.

Parker WH, Manson JE. Oophorectomy and cardiovascular mortality: Is there a link? Menopause. 2009 Jan-Feb;16(1):1-2.

Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, Bergstrom J. Low serum testosterone and mortality in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan;93(1):68-75.

Kapoor D, Goodwin E, Channer KS, Jones TH. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, glycaemic control, visceral adiposity and hypercholesterolaemia in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;154(6):899-906.

Rice D, Brannigan RE, Campbell RK, et al. Men’s health, low testosterone, and diabetes: individualized treatment and a multidisciplinary approach. Diabetes Educ. 2008 Nov-Dec;34 Suppl 5:97S-112S.

Calle EE, Miracle-McMahill HL, Thun MJ, Heath CW Jr. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of fatal colon cancer in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Apr 5;87(7):517-23.

Zandi PP, Carlson MC, Plassman BL, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and incidence of Alzheimer disease in older women: the Cache County Study. JAMA. 2002 Nov 6;288(17):2123-2129.

Harden CL. The mysterious effect of reproductive hormones on cognitive function: scientific knowledge in search of an application. J Gend Specif Med. 2000 Oct;3(7):33- 37.

Loret De Mola JR. Effects of estrogen use on the risk of alzheimer’s disease. Biomedicina. 2000 Jan;3(1):6-7.

Hodis HN, Mack WJ. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular disease in perspective. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Sep;51(3):564-580.

Saunders-Pullman RJ. Another potential benefit from HRT: Slowing Parkinson’s. Geriatrics. 1998 Jun;53(6):91.

Malkin CJ, Pugh PJ, West JN, et al. Testosterone therapy in men with moderate severity heart failure: a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial. Eur Heart J. 2006 Jan;27(1):57-64.

Salpeter SR, Cheng J, Thabane L, et al. Bayesian meta-analysis of hormone therapy and mortality in younger postmenopausal women. Am J Med. 2009 Nov;122(11):1016-1022.

Dobnig H, Pilz S, Scharnagl H, et al. Independent association of low serum 25- hydroxyvitamin d and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 23;168(12):1340-9.

 

Review of WHI & HERS trials

Klaiber EL, Vogel W, Rako S. A critique of the Women’s Health Initiative hormone therapy study. Fertil Steril. 2005 Dec;84(6):1589-1601.

Gambrell RD. The women’s health initiative reports: Critical review of the findings. The Female Patient. 2004;29:25-41.

Mishell DR, McNeille LG. Hormone Therapy and Coronary Heart Disease: Evolving evidence from clinical trials. J of Family Practice. 2007 Nov;15(2):S1-S6.

Salpeter SR, Walsh JM, Greyber E, et al. Mortality associated with hormone replacement therapy in younger and older women: a meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2004 Jul;19(7):791-804.

Wood MJ, Cox JL. HRT to prevent cardiovascular disease. What studies show, how to advise patients. Postgrad Med. 2000 Sep 1;108(3):59-60, 63-6, 69-72.

Brzyski RG. Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease. Biomedicina. 2000 Jan;3(1):126-128.

Dubey RK, Jackson EK, Gillespie DG, et al. Medroxyprogesterone abrogates the inhibitory effects of estradiol on vascular smooth muscle cells by preventing estradiol metabolism. Hypertension. 2008 Apr;51(4):1197-202.

Booth EA, Lucchesi BR. Medroxyprogesterone acetate prevents the cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of 17beta-estradiol in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):H1408- 15.

Review of Different BHRT

Cirigliano M. Bioidentical hormone therapy: a review of the evidence. J Womens Health.

2007 Jun;16(5):600-631.

Lemon HM. Pathophysiologic considerations in the treatment of menopausal patients with oestrogens; the role of oestriol in the prevention of mammary carcinoma. Acta Endocrinol Suppl. 1980;233:17-27.

Lauritzen C. Results of a 5 years prospective study of estriol succinate treatment in patients with climacteric complaints. Horm Metab Res. 1987 Nov;19(11):579-584.

Head KA. Estriol: safety and efficacy. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Apr;3(2):101-113. Takahashi K, Okada M, Ozaki T, et al. Safety and efficacy of oestriol for symptoms of

natural or surgically induced menopause. Hum Reprod. 2000 May;15(5):1028-1036. Teoh H, Quan A, Leung SW, Man RY. Vascular effects of estrone and diethylstilbestrol in porcine coronary arteries. Menopause. 2009 Jan-Feb;16(1):104-109.

Karim R, Mack WJ, Lobo RA, et al. Determinants of the effect of estrogen on the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial. Menopause. 2005 Jul-Aug;12(4):366-73.

Pratt JH, Longcope C. Estriol production rates and breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978 Jan;46(1):44-7.

Lippman M, Monaco ME, Bolan G. Effects of estrone, estradiol, and estriol on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. Cancer Res. 1977 Jun;37(6):1901-1907.

Siiteri PK, Sholtz RI, Cirillo PM, et al. Prospective study of estrogens during pregnancy and risk of breast cancer. Public Health Institute. 2002.

Vooijs GP, Geurts TB. Review of the endometrial safety during intravaginal treatment with estriol. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995 Sep;62(1):101-106.

Nachtigall LE. Bioidentical versus nonbioidentical hormones. Proceedings from the postgraduate course presented prior to the 17th annual meeting of the North American Menopause Society. 2006 October 11;15-19.

Hormones & Cancer

Fuhrman B, Barba M, Schünemann HJ, et al. Basal growth hormone concentrations in blood and the risk for prostate cancer: a case-control study. Prostate. 2005 Jul 1;64(2):109-15.

Devi GR, Sprenger CC, Plymate SR, Rosenfeld RG. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 induces early apoptosis in malignant prostate cancer cells and inhibits tumor formation in vivo. Prostate. 2002 May 1;51(2):141-52.

Melmed S. Acromegaly and cancer: not a problem? J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jul;86(7):2929-34.

Carter HB, Pearson JD, Metter EJ, et al. Longitudinal evaluation of serum androgen levels in men with and without prostate cancer. Prostate. 1995 Jul;27(1):25-31.

Chen C, Lewis SK, Voigt L, et al. Prostate carcinoma incidence in relation to prediagnostic circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, and insulin. Cancer. 2005 Jan 1;103(1):76-84.

Rhoden EL, Morgentaler A. Medical Progress: Risks of Testosterone-Replacement Therapy and Recommendations for Monitoring. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan; 350:482- 492.

Morgentaler A, Rhoden EL. Prevalence of prostate cancer among hypogonadal men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 4.0 ng/mL or less. Urology. 2006 Dec;68(6):1263-7.

Scherr DS, Pitts WR Jr. The nonsteroidal effects of diethylstilbestrol: the rationale for androgen deprivation therapy without estrogen deprivation in the treatment of prostate cancer. J Urol. 2003 Nov;170(5):1703-8.

Eaton NE, Reeves GK, Appleby PN, Key TJ. Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a quantitative review of prospective studies. Br J Cancer. 1999 Jun;80(7):930- 4.

Shabsigh R, Crawford ED, Nehra A, Slawin KM. Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men and potential prostate cancer risk: a systematic review. Int J Impot Res. 2009 Jan- Feb;21(1):9-23.

Savage L, Widener A. Sex Hormones Unrelated to Prostate Cancer Risk. JNCI. 2008;100(3):157.

Page JH, Colditz GA, Rifai N, et al. Plasma adrenal androgens and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Jun;13(6):1032-6.

Heikkilä R, Aho K, Heliövaara M, et al. Serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations and the risk of prostate carcinoma: a longitudinal study. Cancer. 1999 Jul 15;86(2):312-5.

Jancin B. HRT Safe for Survivors of Early-Stage Breast Ca. Family Practice News. 2001 Jun 1.

Goldman EL. ERT shows no risk in breast cancer survivors. (unable to find full reference)

Johnson K. ERT Does Not Increase Breast Cancer Recurrence or Mortality. Family Practice News. 1999 May 15.

Campagnoli C, Clavel-Chapelon F, Kaaks R, et al. Progestins and progesterone in hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Jul;96(2):95-108.

Lea R, Bannister E, Case A, Levesque P, et al. Use of hormonal replacement therapy after treatment of breast cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Jan;26(1):49-60.

Decker DA, Pettinga JE, VanderVelde N, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors: a matched-controlled series. Menopause. 2003 Jul- Aug;10(4):277-85.

Suriano KA, McHale M, McLaren CE, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy in endometrial cancer patients: a matched control study. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Apr;97(4):555-60.

Schairer C, Lubin J, Troisi R, et al. Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. JAMA. 2000 Jan 26;283(4):485-91.

Jancin B. Adding progestin to estrogen multiplies breast cancer risk. Family Practice News. 2001 Mar 15.

Walling AD. Does HRT Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? Am Fam Physician. 2002 Mar 1;65(5):947.

Durna EM, Wren BG, Heller GZ, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer: cancer recurrence and mortality. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 7;177(7):347-51.

O’Meara ES, Rossing MA, Daling JR, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer in relation to recurrence and mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 May 16;93(10):754-62.

Bergkvist L, Adami HO, Persson I, et al. The risk of breast cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. N Engl J Med. 1989 Aug 3;321(5):293-7.

Stefanick ML, Anderson GL, Margolis KL, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on breast cancer and mammography screening in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. JAMA. 2006 Apr 12;295(14):1647-57.

James-Enger K. Cancer prevention breakthrough. Redbook. 2001 Mar;196(3):132.

Gizard F, Robillard R, Gervois P, et al. Progesterone inhibits human breast cancer cell growth through transcriptional upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 gene. FEBS Lett. 2005 Oct 24;579(25):5535-41.

Levgur M. Hormone therapy for women after breast cancer. J of Reprod Med. 2004 Jul;49(7):510-26.

Natrajan PK, Gambrell RD. Estrogen replacement therapy in patients with early breast cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Aug;187(2):289-94.

Campagnoli C, Abba C, Amgroggio S, Peris C. Pregnancy, progesterone and progestins in relation to breast cancer risk. J of Steroid Biochem & Molecular Biol. 2005;97:441-450.

O’Meara ES, Rossing MA, Daling JR, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer in relation to recurrence and mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 May 16;93(10):754-62.

Meurer LN, Lená S. Cancer recurrence and mortality in women using hormone replacement therapy: meta-analysis. J Fam Pract. 2002 Dec;51(12):1056-62.

Dimitrakakis C, Jones RA, Liu A, Bondy CA. Breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women using testosterone in addition to usual hormone therapy. Menopause. 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):531-5.

Dew JE, Wren BG, Eden JA. Tamoxifen, hormone receptors and hormone replacement therapy in women previously treated for breast cancer: a cohort study. Climacteric. 2002 Jun;5(2):151-5.

Decker DA, Pettinga JE, VanderVelde N, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors: a matched-controlled series. Menopause. 2003 Jul- Aug;10(4):277-85.

Guidozzi F. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999 Jan;64(1):59-63.

Peters GN, Fodera T, Sabol J, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy after breast cancer: a 12-year follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol. 2001 Dec;8(10):828-32.

Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Cohen DS, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy for menopausal women with a history of breast carcinoma: results of a 5-year, prospective study. Cancer. 2002 Nov 1;95(9):1817-26.

Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Asmar L, Hortobagyi GN, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy after localized breast cancer: clinical outcome of 319 women followed prospectively. J Clin Oncol. 1999 May;17(5):1482-7.

Durna EM, Wren BG, Heller GZ, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer: cancer recurrence and mortality. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 7;177(7):347-51.

Natrajan PK, Soumakis K, Gambrell RD Jr. Estrogen replacement therapy in women with previous breast cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Aug;181(2):288-95.

Guidozzi F. Announcing the winner of the IJGO prize paper award for 1999. Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000 May;69(2):101-2.

Eisen A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, et al. Hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Oct 1;100(19):1361-7.

Chen WY, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, et al. Unopposed estrogen therapy and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2006 May 8;166(9):1027-32.

Rock CL, Flatt SW, Laughlin GA, et al. Reproductive steroid hormones and recurrence-free survival in women with a history of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):614-20.

Lyytinen H, Pukkala E, Ylikorkala O. Breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women using estrogen-only therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec;108(6):1354-60.

Wood CE, Register TC, Lees CJ, et al. Effects of estradiol with micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on risk markers for breast cancer in postmenopausal monkeys. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Jan;101(2):125-34.

Foidart JM, Colin C, Denoo X, et al. Estradiol and progesterone regulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial cells. Fertil Steril. 1998 May;69(5):963-9.

Fournier A, Berrino F, Riboli E, et al. Breast cancer risk in relation to different types of hormone replacement therapy in the E3N-EPIC cohort. Int J Cancer. 2005 Apr 10;114(3):448-54.

de Lignieres B. Endometrial hyperplasia. Risks, recognition and the search for a safe hormone replacement regimen. J Reprod Med. 1999 Feb;44(2 Suppl):191-6.

Vashisht A, Wadsworth F, Carey A, et al. A study to look at hormonal absorption of progesterone cream used in conjunction with transdermal estrogen. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005 Aug;21(2):101-5.

Calle EE, Miracle-McMahill HL, Thun MJ, Heath CW Jr. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of fatal colon cancer in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Apr 5;87(7):517-23.

Kaaks R, Berrino F, Key T, et al. Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 May 18;97(10):755-65.

Micheli A, Muti P, Secreto G, et al. Endogenous sex hormones and subsequent breast cancer in premenopausal women. Int J Cancer. 2004 Nov 1;112(2):312-8.

Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, et al. Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 5;360(6):573-87.

Stefanick ML, Anderson GL, Margolis KL, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on breast cancer and mammography screening in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. JAMA. 2006 Apr 12;295(14):1647-57.

L’hermite M, Simoncini T, Fuller S, Genazzani AR. Could transdermal estradiol + progesterone be a safer postmenopausal HRT? A review. Maturitas. 2008 Jul- Aug;60(3-4):185-201.

Kaunitz AM. HT and breast cancer: does the type of progestin matter? OBG Management. 2007 June;19(6):31-35.

Barbieri RL. More data on hormone therapy risks arrive to reshape practice. OBG Management. 2008 Aug;20(8).

Holmberg L, Iversen OE, Rudenstam CM, et al. Increased risk of recurrence after hormone replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Apr 2;100(7):475-82.

Fournier A, Berrino F, Clavel-Chapelon F. Unequal risks for breast cancer associated with different hormone replacement therapies: results from the E3N cohort study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Jan;107(1):103-11.

de Lignieres B, de Vathaire F, Fournier S, et al. Combined hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer in a French cohort study of 3175 women. Climacteric. 2002;5:332-340.

Kaaks R, Berrino F, Key T, et al. Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 May 18;97(10):755-65.

Mauvais-Jarvis P, Kuttenn F, Gompel A. Antiestrogen action of progesterone in breast tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1986;8(3):179-88.

Chang KJ, Lee TT, Linares-Cruz G, Fournier S, de Ligniéres B. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertil Steril. 1995 Apr;63(4):785-91.

Hughes S. Endocrinologist association encourages hrt in younger women. Heartwire. 2008 Jan 7.

Formby B, Wiley TS. Bcl-2, survivin and variant CD44 v7-v10 are downregulated and p53 is upregulated in breast cancer cells by progesterone: inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999 Dec;202(1-2):53-61.

Moe BG, Vereide AB, Orbo A, Sager G. High concentrations of progesterone and mifepristone mutually reinforce cell cycle retardation and induction of apoptosis. Anticancer Res. 2009 Apr;29(4):1053-8.

Wang H, Zhou L, Gupta A, Vethanayagam RR, et al. Regulation of BCRP/ABCG2 expression by progesterone and 17beta-estradiol in human placental BeWo cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 May;290(5):E798-807.

Yu S, Lee M, Shin S, Park J. Apoptosis induced by progesterone in human ovarian cancer cell line SNU-840. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82(3):445-51.

Cleary MP, Grossmann ME. Minireview: Obesity and breast cancer: the estrogen connection. Endocrinology. 2009 Jun;150(6):2537-42.

Eisen A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, et al. Hormone Therapy and the Risk of Breast Cancer in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(19):1361- 1367.

Testosterone & Breast Cancer prevention

Radosh L. Drug treatments for polycystic ovary syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Apr 15;79(8):671-6.

Secreto G, Venturelli E, Meneghini E, et al. Testosterone and biological characteristics of breast cancers in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Nov;18(11):2942-8.

Schneider ME. Metformin regimen found to quell acne in polycystic ovary syndrome. Skin & Allergy News. 2007 October 1.

Somboonporn W, Davis SR, et al. Testosterone effects on the breast: implications for testosterone therapy for women. Endocr Rev. 2004 Jun;25(3):374-88.

Panzer C, Guay A. Testosterone replacement therapy in naturally and surgically menopausal women. J Sex Med. 2009 Jan;6(1):8-18.

Dimitrakakis C, Zhou J, Bondy CA. Androgens and mammary growth and neoplasia. Fertil Steril. 2002 Apr;77 Suppl 4:S26-33.

Burgess HE, Shousha S. An immunohistochemical study of the long-term effects of androgen administration on female-to-male transsexual breast: a comparison with normal female breast and male breast showing gynaecomastia. J Pathol. 1993 May;170(1):37-43.

Christgau S, Tankó LB, Cloos PA, et al. Suppression of elevated cartilage turnover in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized rats by estrogen and a selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM). Menopause. 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):508-18.

Hofling M, Hirschberg AL, Skoog L, et al. Testosterone inhibits estrogen/progestogen- induced breast cell proliferation in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2007 Mar- Apr;14(2):183-90.

Shufelt CL, Braunstein GD. Testosterone and the breast. Menopause Int. 2008 Sep;14(3):117-22.

Davis SR, Hirschberg AL, Wagner LK, et al. The effect of transdermal testosterone on mammographic density in postmenopausal women not receiving systemic estrogen therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;94(12):4907-13.

Key T, Appleby P, Barnes I, et al. Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Apr 17;94(8):606-616.

Lapointe J, Fournier A, Richard V, Labrie C. Androgens down-regulate bcl-2 protooncogene expression in ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells. Endocrinology. 1999 Jan;140(1):416-21.

Zhou J, Ng S, Adesanya-Famuiya O, Anderson K, Bondy CA. Testosterone inhibits estrogen-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and suppresses estrogen receptor expression. FASEB J. 2000 Sep;14(12):1725-30.

Ortmann J, Prifti S, Bohlmann MK, et al. Testosterone and 5 alpha- dihydrotestosterone inhibit in vitro growth of human breast cancer cell lines. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2002 Apr;16(2):113-20.

Dimitrakakis C, Zhou J, Wang J, et al. A physiologic role for testosterone in limiting estrogenic stimulation of the breast. Menopause. 2003 Jul-Aug;10(4):292-8.

Gooren L. Testosterone supplementation: why and for whom? Aging Male. 2003 Sep;6(3):184-99.

Guidozzi F, Daponte A. Estrogen replacement therapy for ovarian carcinoma survivors: A randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 1999 Sep 15;86(6):1013-8.

Bu SZ, Yin DL, Ren XH, et al. Progesterone induces apoptosis and up-regulation of p53 expression in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Cancer. 1997 May 15;79(10):1944-50.

Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Tan DX, et al. Melatonin reduces prostate cancer cell growth leading to neuroendocrine differentiation via a receptor and PKA independent mechanism. Prostate. 2005 Apr 1;63(1):29-43.

Schernhammer ES, Berrino F, Krogh V, et al. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 18;100(12):898-905.

Durna EM, Wren BG, Heller GZ, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer: cancer recurrence and mortality. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 7;177(7):347-51.

DiSaia PJ, Brewster WR, Ziogas A, Anton-Culver H. Breast cancer survival and hormone replacement therapy: a cohort analysis. Am J Clin Oncol. 2000 Dec;23(6):541-545.

Gramling R, Eaton CB, Rothman KJ, et al. Hormone Replacement Therapy, Family History, and Breast Cancer Risk Among Postmenopausal Women. Epidemiology. 2009 Sep;20(5):752-756.

Eisen A, Lubinski J, Gronwald J, et al. Hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Oct 1;100(19):1361-1367.

Chustecka Z. Exercise Reduces Risk for Premature Death From Cancer. Medscape. 2009 Aug 3. Accessed on February 20, 2013 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/706533

Splete H. High BMI found to raise risk for most cancers. OBGYN News. 2008 Mar:19. Worcester S. Young, healthy HRT users at low risk for CV event. Family Practice News. 2003 Jun 1. 33:11

Franklin BA, Shephard RJ. Avoiding Repeat Cardiac Events: The ABCDESs of Tertiary Prevention. Phys Sportsmed. 2000 Sep;28(9):31-58.

Recent rheumatology research results reported: American College of Rheumatology highlights current noteworthy studies. J of Muscoloskeletal Med. 2004 Aug 1.

Estrogen/Progesterone Optimization

Toh S, Hernández-Díaz S, Logan R, et al. Coronary heart disease in postmenopausal recipients of estrogen plus progestin therapy: does the increased risk ever disappear? A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Feb 16;152(4):211-7.

Grodstein F, Stampfer MJ. Estrogen for women at varying risk of coronary disease. Maturitas. 1998 Sep 20;30(1):19-26.

Gerhard M, Walsh BW, Tawakol A, et al. Estradiol therapy combined with progesterone and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in postmenopausal women. Circulation. 1998 Sep 22;98(12):1158-63.

  1. Kujala UM, Sarna S, Kaprio J, et al. Natural selection to sports, later physical activity habits, and coronary heart disease. Br J Sports Med. 2000 Dec;34(6):445-9.
  2. Davison KK, Birch LL. Weight status, parent reaction, and self-concept in five- year-old girls. Pediatrics. 2001 Jan;107(1):46-53.
  3. Grodstein F, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective, observational study of postmenopausal hormone therapy and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Ann Intern Med. 2000 Dec 19;133(12):933-41.

Johnson K. Oral contraceptives found protective against cardiovascular disease. Family Practice News. 2005 Aug 1.

Siris ES, Miller PD, Barrett-Connor E, et al. Identification and fracture outcomes of undiagnosed low bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: results from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. JAMA. 2001 Dec 12;286(22):2815-22.

Johnson K. ERT boosts cognitive function no matter the age. (unable to find full reference)

The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial. JAMA. 1995 Jan 18;273(3):199-208.

Henderson VW, Benke KS, Green RC, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and Alzheimer’s disease risk: interaction with age. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Jan;76(1):103-5.

Harman SM, Vittinghoff E, Brinton EA, et al. Timing and duration of menopausal hormone treatment may affect cardiovascular outcomes. Am J Med. 2011 Mar;124(3):199-205.

Cooper AJ, White MI. Use of Pro-Gest cream in postmenopausal women. The Lancet. 1998 Sept 12;352:905-906.

Wren BG, McFarland K, Edwards L. Micronised transdermal progesterone and endometrial response. Lancet. 1999 Oct 23;354(9188):1447-8.

Harman SM, Vittinghoff E, Brinton EA, et al. Timing and duration of menopausal hormone treatment may affect cardiovascular outcomes. Am J Med. 2011 Mar;124(3):199-205.

Progesterone Benefits

Toh S, Hernández-Díaz S, Logan R, et al. Coronary heart disease in postmenopausal recipients of estrogen plus progestin therapy: does the increased risk ever disappear? A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Feb 16;152(4):211-7.

Pinkerton JV. Bioidentical hormones: What you (and your patient) need to know. The J of Fam Practice. 2009 Jan;21(1).

Tai PL. Avoid Common Pitfalls, Mistakes, and 87% Failures of Anti Aging Saliva Hormone Testing, The America Academy of Anti Aging Medicine 15th Annual International Congress on Anti aging Medicine & Regenerative Biomedical Technologies, Orlando, Florida, April 26, 2007.

Boothby LA, Doering PL, Kipersztok S. Bioidentical hormone therapy: a review. Menopause. 2004 May-Jun;11(3):356-67.

Ilyia ER, McLure D, Farhat MY. Long- Term Effects of Topical Progesterone Cream Application: A Case Study. Inter J of Pharmaceutical Compounding. June 1998.

Gavrilova N, Lindau ST. Salivary sex hormone measurement in a national, population-based study of older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009 Nov;64:i94- 105.

Arregger AL, Contreras LN, Tumilasci OR, et al. Salivary testosterone: a reliable approach to the diagnosis of male hypogonadism. Clin Endocrinol. 2007 Nov;67(5):656-62.

Stanczyk FZ, Paulson RJ, Roy S. Percutaneous administration of progesterone: blood levels and endometrial protection. Menopause. 2005 Mar;12(2):232-7.

Vashisht A, Wadsworth F, Carey A, Carey B, Studd J. A study to look at hormonal absorption of progesterone cream used in conjunction with transdermal estrogen. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005 Aug;21(2):101-5.

MacFarland SA. Use of Pro-Gest cream in postmenopausal women. The Lancet. 1998 Sept 12;352:905.

Taylor-Robinson D, Ong G, Thomas BJ, Rose ML, Yacoub MH. Chlamydia pneumoniae in vascular tissues from heart-transplant donors. Lancet. 1998 Apr 25;351(9111):1255.

Wren BG, McFarland K, Edwards L. Micronised transdermal progesterone and endometrial response. Lancet. 1999 Oct 23;354(9188):1447-8.

Peck JD, Hulka BS, Poole C, et al. Steroid hormone levels during pregnancy and incidence of maternal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Apr;11(4):361-8.

Lewis JG, McGill H, Patton VM, Elder PA. Caution on the use of saliva measurements to monitor absorption of progesterone from transdermal creams in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002 Jan 30;41(1):1-6.

de Lignières B. Effects of progestogens on the postmenopausal breast. Climacteric. 2002 Sep;5(3):229-35.

Formby B, Wiley TS. Bcl-2, survivin and variant CD44 v7-v10 are downregulated and p53 is upregulated in breast cancer cells by progesterone: inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999 Dec;202(1-2):53-61.

McCrohon JA, Nakhla S, Jessup W, et al. Estrogen and progesterone reduce lipid accumulation in human monocyte-derived macrophages: a sex-specific effect. Circulation. 1999 Dec 7;100(23):2319-25.

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Blake EJ, Norris PM, Dorfman SF, et al. Single and multidose pharmacokinetic study of a vaginal micronized progesterone insert (Endometrin) compared with vaginal gel in healthy reproductive-aged female subjects. Fertil Steril. 2010 Sep;94(4):1296- 301.

Schumacher M, Guennoun R, Ghoumari A, et al. Novel perspectives for progesterone in hormone replacement therapy, with special reference to the nervous system. Endocr Rev. 2007 Jun;28(4):387-439.

Darbinian JA, Ferrara AM, Van Den Eeden SK, et al. Glycemic status and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):628-35.

Rhoden EL, Morgentaler A. Risks of Testosterone-Replacement Therapy and Recommendations for Monitoring. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(5):482-492.

 

Testosterone Benefits and Safety

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Hajjar RR, Kaiser FE, Morley JE. Outcomes of long-term testosterone replacement in older hypogonadal males: a retrospective analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Nov;82(11):3793-6.

Fairbanks VF. What to include in the workup of an elevated hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit? (Hematology Q&A). Consultant. 2003 Jun 1.

Thompson PD, Cullinane EM, Sady SP, et al. Contrasting effects of testosterone and stanozolol on serum lipoprotein levels. JAMA. 1989 Feb 24;261(8):1165-8.

Darbinian JA, Ferrara AM, Van Den Eeden SK, et al. Glycemic status and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):628-35.

Kapoor D, Goodwin E, Channer KS, Jones TH. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, glycaemic control, visceral adiposity and hypercholesterolaemia in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;154(6):899-906.

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HGH

The Effects of 10 Years of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone (GH) in Adult GH-Deficient Patients

  1. Gibney, J. D. Wallace, T. Spinks,  L. Schnorr,  A. Ranicar,  R. C. Cuneo,  S. Lockhart,  K. G. Burnand,  F. Salomon, P. H. Sonksen … Show more

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 84, Issue 8, 1 August 1999, Pages 2596–2602, https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.84.8.5916

Endocr Connect. 2018 May; 7(5): 653–662. 

 

Published online 2018 Apr 16. doi: 10.1530/EC-18-0096 PMCID: PMC5952245 PMID: 29661785 The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular   complications in adult-onset GHD during GH replacement: a KIMS analysis

Johan Verhelst,1 Anders F Mattsson,2 Cecilia Camacho-Hübner,3 Anton Luger,4 and  Roger Abs5

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9666873
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Wirén L1, Bengtsson BA, Johannsson G. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15125882
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).
 1998 May;48(5):613-20.

 

Three-years of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH-deficient adults: effects on quality of life, patient-reported outcomes and healthcare consumption.

Svensson J1, Mattsson A, Rosén T, Wirén L, Johannsson G, Bengtsson BA, Koltowska Häggström M; Swedish KIMS National Board.

 

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2046-52.

Low dose dehydroepiandrosterone affects behavior in hypopituitary androgen-deficient women: a placebo-controlled trial.

Johannsson G1, Burman P, Wirén L, Engström BE, Nilsson AG, Ottosson M, Jonsson B, Bengtsson BA, Karlsson FA.

 

Postgrad Med J. 2004 Oct; 80(948): 577–580. 

doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2003.017467

PMCID: PMC1743118

PMID: 15466991

Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone

A J van der Lely

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Jul;81(1):1-14. doi: 10.1111/cen.12477. Epub 2014 May 12.

Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment in adults with growth hormone deficiency: a systematic review of studies on morbidity.

van Bunderen CC1, van Varsseveld NC, Erfurth EM, Ket JC, Drent ML.

 

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Thyroid vs. Cardiovascular disease & Osteoporosis

Feld S, Dickey RA. An Association Between Varying Degrees of Hypothyroidism and Hypercholesterolemia in Women: The Thyroid-Cholesterol Connection. Prev Cardiol. 2001 Autumn;4(4):179-182.

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Garrison RL, Breeding PC. A metabolic basis for fibromyalgia and its related disorders: the possible role of resistance to thyroid hormone. Med Hypotheses. 2003 Aug;61(2):182-9.

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Shomon M. The thyroid treatment/osteoporosis controversy: Does thyroid treatment contribute to loss of bone density? Thyroid Info. Accessed on February 20, 2013 from http://www.thyroid-info.com/articles/osteoporosis.htm

Thomasson WA. WCO: Thyroid Supplementation Does Not Increase Osteoporosis Risk. Doctor’s Guide. 2000 Jun 17. Accessed on February 20, 2013 from http://www.pslgroup.com/dg/1d62e2.htm

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Franklyn JA, Betteridge J, Daykin J, et al. Long-term thyroxine treatment and bone mineral density. Lancet. 1992 Jul 4;340(8810):9-13.

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Shomon MJ, Cline W. Is Thyroid Medication Going to Give You Osteoporosis? Experts Evaluate the Risks. About.com. 2004 Mar 11. Accessed February 20, 2013 from http://thyroid.about.com/cs/osteoporosis/a/osteoporosis.htm

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LRA by ELISA/ACT clinical update #16: Autoimmune thyroiditis:1-6.

 

DHEA
Pepping J. DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2000 Nov

15;57(22):2048-50, 2053-4, 2056.

Hormones & Weight Loss

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Female Patient. 2001 April;26:18-24.
Goldman EL. ‘Syndrome W’ in Perimenopausal Women. Family Practice News. 1999

July 1.
Simkin-Silverman LR, Wing RR. Weight gain during menopause: Is it inevitable or

can it be prevented? Postgraduate Med. 2000 Sept 1. 108(3):47-55. Menopause matters. The Female Patient. 2000 Sept;25:61.

Heart Disease prevention

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Chrysant SG, Ibrahim M. Niacin-ER/statin combination for the treatment of dyslipidemia: focus on low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Clin Hypertens. 2006 Jul;8(7):493-9.

Despite Advances, Coronary Heart Disease Deaths Rise. Emergency Medicine News. 2001;23(8):42-43.

Dayspring TD. Coronary artery disease prevention in women. The Female Patient. 2001 Jan;26:47-53.

Sacco RL, Benson RT, Kargman DE, et al. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ischemic stroke in the elderly: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. JAMA. 2001 Jun 6;285(21):2729-35.

Brincat MP, Baron Y, Galea R. Estrogens and the skin. Climacteric. 2005;8:110-123.

Goldman EL. Ert benefits skin thickness, elasticity.

Mayeaux EJ, Johnson C. Current concepts in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. J Fam Pract. 1996 Jul;43(1):69-75.

Schmidt JB, Binder M, Demschik G, Bieglmayer C, Reiner A. Treatment of Skin Aging with Topical Estrogens. Int J of Pharma Compounding. 1998 Jul/Aug.

Boschert S. Help Patients Assess Antiaging Product Claims. Family Practice News. 1999 July 1

Baumann LS. Cosmeceutical Critique: Soy and its isoflavones. Skin & Allergy News. 2001 Aug;17.

Schmidt JB, Binder M, Demschik G, et al. Treatment of skin aging with topical estrogens. Int J Dermatol. 1996 Sep;35(9):669-74.

Dunn LB, Damesyn M, Moore AA, et al. Does estrogen prevent skin aging? Results from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Arch Dermatol. 1997 Mar;133(3):339-42.

Hargrove JT, Osteen KG. An alternative method of hormone replacement therapy using the natural sex steroids. Infert Repro Med Clin N Am. 1995;6:653-674.

Cardiology Management
HDL better predictor of ischemic stroke than LDL triglycerides. Cardiology Review. 2005

Mar. 22(3):529.

Clinical Insights in Diabetes. National Diabetes Education Initiative. Accessed on February 22, 2013. http://www.ndei.org/Clinical-Insights-in-Diabetes.aspx

Guyton JR, Blazing MA, Hagar J, et al. Extended-release niacin vs gemfibrozil for the treatment of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Niaspan-Gemfibrozil Study Group. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Apr 24;160(8):1177-84.

Cost effectiveness of Statins. Hospital Practice. 2000 July 15. 24(7):33. Sadovsky R. Increasing low levels of high-density lipoprotein. Am Fam Physician.

2001 Jun 15;63(12):2435-2436.

Boden WE. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol as an independent risk factor in cardiovascular disease: assessing the data from Framingham to the Veterans Affairs High–Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial. Am J Cardiol. 2000 Dec 21;86(12A):19L- 22L.

Piepho RW. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of agents proven to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Cardiol. 2000 Dec 21;86(12A):35L-40L.

Sprecher DL. Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with niacin and fibrates: a comparative review. Am J Cardiol. 2000 Dec 21;86(12A):46L-50L.

Jancin B. Testosterone replacement curbs inflammatory cytokines. Clinical Psychiatry News. 2004 May.

Kain D. First comprehensive paper on statins’ adverse effects released. 2009 Jan 26. Accessed on February 22, 2012 from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009- 01/uoc–fcp012609.php

Lu Z, Kou W, Du B, et al. Effect of Xuezhikang, an extract from red yeast Chinese rice, on coronary events in a Chinese population with previous myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Jun 15;101(12):1689-93.

Becker DJ, Gordon RY, Halbert SC, et al. Red yeast rice for dyslipidemia in statin- intolerant patients: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jun 16;150(12):830-9, W147-9.

Ray KK, Seshasai SR, Erqou S, et al. Statins and all-cause mortality in high-risk primary prevention: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials involving 65,229 participants. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jun 28;170(12):1024-31.

Heber D, Lembertas A, Lu QY, Bowerman S, Go VL. An analysis of nine proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplements: implications of variability in chemical profile and contents. J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Apr;7(2):133-9.

Gordon RY, Cooperman T, Obermeyer W, Becker DJ. Marked variability of monacolin levels in commercial red yeast rice products: buyer beware! Arch Intern Med. 2010 Oct 25;170(19):1722-7.

Cziraky MJ, Watson KE, Talbert RL. Targeting low HDL-cholesterol to decrease residual cardiovascular risk in the managed care setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2008 Oct;14(8 Suppl):S3-28; quiz S30-1.

Ling L, Zhao SP, Gao M, et al. Vitamin C preserves endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease after a high-fat meal. Clin Cardiol. 2002 May;25(5):219- 24.

Bays HE, Tighe AP, Sadovsky R, Davidson MH. Prescription omega-3 fatty acids and their lipid effects: physiologic mechanisms of action and clinical implications. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2008 Mar;6(3):391-409.

Heber D, Lembertas A, Lu QY, Bowerman S, Go VL. An analysis of nine proprietary Chinese red yeast rice dietary supplements: implications of variability in chemical profile and contents. J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Apr;7(2):133-9.

Gordon RY, Cooperman T, Obermeyer W, Becker DJ. Marked variability of monacolin levels in commercial red yeast rice products: buyer beware! Arch Intern Med. 2010 Oct 25;170(19):1722-7.

Yancy WS, Voleck JS, Westman EC. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Cardiovascular Risk. JAMA. 2007;298(17):2004-2008

Macready N. New pyramid reflects preventive role of nutrients: food and supplements for older adults. Family Practice News. 2003 Sept 1:29.

PCOS
Jancin B. Hyperinsulinemia, Not Ovaries, at Core of PCOS. Family Practice News. 2001

Jan 15:26.
Samraj G. How should I manage this young woman with menstrual abnormalities

and hirsutism? Family Practice Recertification. 2001 Dec;23(14)608-610.
Hunter MH, Sterrett J. Polycystic ovary syndrome: It’s not just infertility. American

Family Physician. 2000 Sept 1;62(5):1079-1087.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Apr 15;79(8).

Richardson MR. Current perspectives in polycystic ovary syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Aug 15;68(4):697-704.

Hair loss

Lohr E. Alopecia nearly epidemic in black women; hairstyles blamed: tight braids, extensions. Family Practice News. 2004 Jun 1.

Bandaranayake I, Mirmirani P. Hair loss remedies–separating fact from fiction. Cutis. 2004 Feb;73(2):107-14.

Mounsey AL, Reed SW. Diagnosing and treating hair loss. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Aug 15;80(4):356-62.

Osteoporosis & Estrogen Metabolites

Weinerman SA, Miller EH. Foreword: The osteoporosis problem redefined. J of Muscoskeletal Med. 2007 Jun:S3.

Yates J, Barrett-Connor E, Barlas S, et al. Rapid loss of hip fracture protection after estrogen cessation: evidence from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Mar;103(3):440-446.

Miller KE. Osteoporosis prevention in postmenopausal women. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Sep 1;72(5):926-928.

Jancin B. Hormones studied to promote bone formation. Family Practice News. 2001 Nov 1.

Simon JA, Mack CJ. Preventing osteoporosis and improving compliance with HRT. Contemporary OB/GYN for the Nurse Practitioner. In: Bachmann GA. HRT putting the latest into practice. 2001:4-9.

Sutton R, Dian L, Guy P. Osteoporosis in men: An underrecognized and undertreated problem. BCMJ. 2011 Dec: 53(10):535-540.

Walsh N. Dietary Supplement Ipriflavone Stems Bone Loss. Family Practice News. 2001 Apr 15;31(8):32.

Daniell HW. Periodontitis in estrogen-deficient women. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Dec 9- 23;162(22):2634-5.

Civitelli R, Pilgram TK, Dotson M, et al. Alveolar and postcranial bone density in postmenopausal women receiving hormone/estrogen replacement therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Jun 24;162(12):1409-15.

Paganini-Hill A. The benefits of estrogen replacement therapy on oral health. The Leisure World cohort. Arch Intern Med. 1995 Nov 27;155(21):2325-9.

Villareal DT, Binder EF, Williams DB, et al. Bone mineral density response to estrogen replacement in frail elderly women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001 Aug 15;286(7):815-20.

Vogel JJ. Selecting Bioidentical Hormone Therapy.

Götherström G, Svensson J, Koranyi J, et al. A prospective study of 5 years of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient adults: sustained effects on body composition, bone mass, and metabolic indices. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Oct;86(10):4657- 65.

Franco C, Brandberg J, Lonn L, et al. Growth hormone treatment reduces abdominal visceral fat in postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity: A 12-month placebo- controlled trial. JCEM. 2005;90: 1466-1474.

Birge SJ. Nonvertebral “osteoporotic” fractures: a brain disease or bone disease? Menopause. 2007 Jan-Feb;14(1):1-2.

Naessen T, Lindmark B, Lagerström C, et al. Early postmenopausal hormone therapy improves postural balance.Menopause. 2007 Jan-Feb;14(1):14-9.

Cesareo R, Napolitano C, Iozzino M. Strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment: a critical appraisal. Int J Womens Health. 2010 Aug 9;2:1-6.

Osteoporosis: Protecting and strengthening bones naturally. The Standard. 2004;6(2):1-8.

Estrogen in Men

Zitzmann M, Erren M, Kamischke A, et al. Endogenous progesterone and the exogenous progestin norethisterone enanthate are associated with a proinflammatory profile in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Dec;90(12):6603- 8.

Zumpe D, Clancy AN, Michael RP. Progesterone decreases mating and estradiol uptake in preoptic areas of male monkeys. Physiol Behav. 2001 Nov-Dec;74(4- 5):603- 12.

Singh PB, Matanhelia SS, Martin FL. A potential paradox in prostate adenocarcinoma progression: oestrogen as the initiating driver. Eur J Cancer. 2008 May;44(7):928- 36.

Bosland MC. Sex steroids and prostate carcinogenesis: integrated, multifactorial working hypothesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1089:168-76.

Carruba G. Estrogens and mechanisms of prostate cancer progression. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1089:201-17.

Estrogen plays critical role in regulating bone metabolism in men. Reuters Medical News. 2001 Jan 26.

Amin S, Zhang Y, Felson DT, et al. Estradiol, testosterone, and the risk for hip fractures in elderly men from the Framingham Study. Am J Med. 2006 May;119(5):426-33.

Moon MA. Estradiol Prevents Bone Loss Due to Prostate Cancer Therapy. Family Practice News.

Estrogen plays critical role in regulating bone metabolism in men. Reuters Medical News. 2001 Jan 26.

Ongphiphadhanakul B, Rajatanavin R, Chanprasertyothin S, et al. Serum oestradiol and oestrogen-receptor gene polymorphism are associated with bone mineral density independently of serum testosterone in normal males. Clin Endocrinol. 1998 Dec;49(6):803-9.

Arnlöv J, Pencina MJ, Amin S, et al. Endogenous sex hormones and cardiovascular disease incidence in men. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Aug 1;145(3):176-84.

Carani C, Rochira V, Faustini-Fustini M, et al. Role of oestrogen in male sexual behaviour: insights from the natural model of aromatase deficiency. Clin Endocrinol. 1999 Oct;51(4):517-24.

Cherrier MM, Matsumoto AM, Amory JK, et al. The role of aromatization in testosterone supplementation: effects on cognition in older men. Neurology. 2005 Jan 25;64(2):290-6.

Gooren LJ, Toorians AW. Significance of oestrogens in male (patho)physiology. Ann Endocrinol. 2003 Apr;64(2):126-35.

Giri S, Thompson PD, Taxel P, et al. Oral estrogen improves serum lipids, homocysteine and fibrinolysis in elderly men. Atherosclerosis. 1998 Apr;137(2):359- 66.